Microcontrol n Apps

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"Microcontrol'n Apps" is an intermediate level applications guide covering Microchip Technology's PIC Microcontrollers. Serial communication as a means of transferring data between PIC microcontrollers and peripheral chips and also between two or more PIC microcontrollers is described. A/D and D/A are discussed with several methods illustrated for each. Interfacing PIC microcontroller-controlled systems with humans requires some math, binary to decimal conversion and vice versa, alphanumeric LCD interfacing and scanning keypads. The book also explains how to establish serial communication between a PIC microcontroller and a PC via a RS-232 conversion circuit and a terminal program. These techniques are used in a digital voltmeter/data logger experiment for uploading data to a PC for display plus graphing using a spreadsheet program. Finally, use of the Microchip in-circuit debugger (ICD) is described. By David Benson (8-1/2 x 11 format, 437 pages)TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE INTRODUCTION PRODUCT OVERVIEW CIRCUIT MODULES FOR EXPERIMENTS USING OP-AMPS SERIAL COMMUNICATION SHIFT REGISTERS Serial In, Parallel Out Shift Register - 74HC164 Parallel In, Serial Out Shift Register - 74HC165 Serial In, Parallel Out Shift Register - 74HC595 SERIAL EEPROMS Demo Circuit Main Program - Initial Test SERIAL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN TWO PIC MICROCONTROLLERS LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY INTERFACE 1 X 16 LCD Pins And Functions Data vs. Instruction Display Control Character Addresses LCD Operation PIC/LCD Circuit Timing And Pulsing Testing The Circuit Display RAM Initialization ASCII Example Routines For LCD Fill Display With Blanks Display "HELLO" LCD Initialization Character Addresses More on Alphanumeric Character Addresses Display 16 Characters Display Hex Byte Subroutine Blanks Separate A Hex Byte Into Two ASCII Digits Hex Digit To ASCII Conversion Hex To Bits Subroutine Program Listing To Use/Test Display Hex Byte 4-Bit Mode LCD Module Serial Interface LCD Experiments More About ASCII LCD Font table SCANNING KEYPADS Software Design Scan Decimal Subroutine Using Keypad And LCD With PIC Microcontroller Debounce Function Keys DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERSION Do It Yourself D/A Using A Resistor Network 8-Bit Parallel D/A Converter - AD558 Do It Yourself D/A Using Pulse Width Modulation PWM Basics Low Pass Filters PWM Using A Filter With Unity Gain Follower More PWM Philosophy Analog Output - Increase/Decrease Buttons PWM Using Software, TMR0 And Interrupts - Philosophy Hardware PWM 8-Bit Serial D/A Converter - MAX522 Output A Voltage Level Output A Ramp Voltage Output A Sine Wave SENSORS - ANALOG VOLTAGE OUTPUT LM335 Temperature Sensor Offset And Scale Three Amplifier Design Single Amplifier Design Why 1 Op-amp vs. 3 Op-amps? ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERSION PIC Pin And RC Time Constant Measuring Resistance PIC16F870 On-Board 10-bit A/D A/D Control Registers A/D Conversion Procedure Example PIC16F870 On-Board 10-bit A/D - Using Only the Most Significant 8 bits Example PIC12F675 On-Board 10-bit A/D A/D Control Registers A/D Conversion Procedure Example 10-bit A/D Differences USING COMPARATORS Comparator Control Register - CMCON Voltage Reference Control Register - VRCON Single Comparator Example Comparator Interrupts MATH ROUTINES Instructions Arithmetic Addition Subtraction Multiplication Double Precision Addition Subtraction Multiplication Multiply A 2-Byte Binary Number By Decimal 10 8-Bit X 8-Bit Multiply, 2-Byte Result DECIMAL INTERFACE 3-digit decimal to 8-bit binary Using the 3-digit decimal to 8-bit binary decimal entry program 8-bit to 3-digit BCD Display result of 8-bit binary to 3-digit BCD 16-bit binary to 5-digit BCD - range 0x0000 to 0x7FFF 16-bit binary to 5-digit BCD - range 0x0000 to 0xFFFF DIGITAL THERMOMETER Building blocks Rounding off Displaying temperature via a LCD SIMPLE DIGITAL VOLTMETER EXPERIMENT TALKING TO A PIC MICROCONTROLLER WITH A PC VIA A WINDOWS TERMINAL PROGRAM "U-turn" experiment PC-to-PC "2-lane highway" experiment Importing a text file into a spreadsheet program Windows XP - Microsoft Works 7.0 PC/PIC Microcontroller PC baud rates Modify ser_out subroutine Modify ser_in subroutine PIC to PIC at 4800 baud, LSB first RS-232 interface for a PIC microcontroller RS-232 converter circuit using MAX233 PC to PIC microcontroller serial communication Display one ASCII character via 8 LEDs PIC microcontroller to PC serial communication Send one ASCII character Code for formatting PIC microcontroller data on a PC screen PC to PIC/LCD Control characters Sending a text file (control characters and data) SIMPLE DATA LOGGER EXPERIMENT Main program Data logging Display data sequentially via LCD Uploading data to a PC Code Operating procedure Spreadsheet and graphing data - Windows XP MOV'n UP OR DOWN Pin function options and how to select them Clock oscillator options Example - PIC12F627/628 Example - PIC12F629/675 External reset vs. digital I/O option Example - PIC12F627/628 Example - PIC12F629/675 Special function registers General purpose file registers CBLOCK assembler directive Configuration words PIC16F628 Pins and functions Package Ports Architecture - overview Program memory File registers Special purpose registers - overview Status register Option register Program counter Control registers Comparator control register - CMCON Configuration bits PIC16F628 programming examples Example - pict1.asm adapted Example - internal 4 MHz clock, no MCLR PIC12F675 - 8-PIN MICROCONTROLLER Pins and functions Packag Ports - GPIO Clock oscillator options - covered previously External reset vs. digital input pin (GP3) - covered previously Architecture - overview Program memory File registers Special purpose registers - overview Status register Option register Program counter Control registers Comparator control (CMCON) register Analog select (ANSEL) register Tristate I/O (TRISIO) register Configuration bits Calibrating the internal 4 MHz RC clock oscillator Device programming considerations related to internal oscillator calibration Example program Led pattern Internal reset Internal clock oscillator PIC16F870 Pins and functions Package Ports Architecture - overview Program memory File registers Special purpose registers - overview Status register Option register Program counter Control registers A/D control (ADCON1) register Configuration Bits F870 vs. F84 CIRCUIT MODULES FOR F870 EXPERIMENTS Building Your Own Simple Test Board - 87s Board 87s Companion Board PROGRAMMING THE F870 USING A DEVICE PROGRAMMER First F870 Program - To be programmed via a Device Programmer PORTING YOUR APPLICATION FROM F84 To F870 - F870 PROGRAMMED VIA A DEVICE PROGRAMMER PIC16F877 Disable A/D on port E Connect both power and both ground pins DEBUG'n GETTING STARTED PIC16F87x series F870 - my candidate for the debug'n experimenter's part of choice F876 - my second choice F84 vs. F870 for learning purposes Device programmer vs. bootloader vs. ICD2 Bootloaders Microchip ICD2 What a debugger can do for you Debugging methodology Single stepping Breakpoint Watch window Debugging MICROCHIP ICD2 Description User Board = Target Board Using The Microchip ICD2 General considerations First project First F870 program for use with ICD2 MPLAB Operations Setting up the ICD2 Toolbar To run a program in real time via the toolbar To reset the F870 via the tool bar Watch window Single stepping Break point Break on address match Clear breakpoint Break on user halt Powering down Operating the 87s board stand alone after debug'n Reconnecting the ICD2 After 87s board stand alone operation Firing up MPLAB and opening an existing project Conclusion Porting your application from F84 to F870 - F870 PROGRAMMED VIA ICD2 USING THE ICD2 AS A MINI IN-CIRCUIT DEBUGGER FOR F84, F628 ETC. APPENDICES Appendix A - Sources Appendix B - Hexadecimal Numbers Appendix C - Program Listings vs. Page Numbers